ROPS 1999

The Evolution Of A Social Contract: The University Of California Before And In The Aftermath Of Affirmative Action

John Aubrey Douglass
1999

This essay provides an analysis of the history of admissions at the University of California (UC), including the development of affirmative action programs in the 1960s and, more recently, the heated political battle over the use of race and gender preferences at the University. In an era of mass higher education, the debate over affirmative action has renewed a persistent question within democratic societies: who should and should not have access to a public university education? Two general themes will be discussed.

The Cold War, Technology and the American University, by John Aubrey Douglass

John Aubrey Douglass
1999

The translation of Sputnik from a scientific into a political event changed the dynamics of federal science and technology policy, and elevated to new heights the American research university as a pivotal tool for winning the Cold War. This paper discusses this significant shift in federal policy, its impact on America's research universities and scientific community, and its influence on the contemporary economy. Sputnik prompted a significant expansion in the training of scientists and engineers, and acted as a catalyst for large-scale federal funding for higher education.

Biology at Berkeley, by Martin A. Trow

Martin A. Trow
1999

This paper is concerned with the reorganization of biology at Berkeley, begun in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and now well along. Key to the initiation of change was the appointment of a Chancellor and Vice-chancellor who were committed to the changes, and the enlistment of outstanding biologists already at Berkeley to design the reform and carry it through.

What's for Sale These Days in Higher Education: Two Stories, by Robert M. Rosenzweig

Robert M. Rosenzweig
1999

"What's for sale and what isn't?" The author has no doubt that we will see more corporate involvement in teaching and research. Universities will increasingly sell or rent to corporations those activities to which a dollar value can be attached that is agreeable to both sides. The financial pressures on universities and the value of what they do, as perceived by widening sectors of business, make that close to inevitable. The author, however, is dubious that many universities can be trusted to know the difference between what is marginal and what is central.

German and American Higher Education in Comparison: Is the American System Relevant for Germany?

Michael Heyman
1999

This paper serves as an introduction to a conference devoted to a comparison of higher education in Germany and the United States and how the two systems cope with contemporary pressures and seek to take advantage of opportunities. Using the example of the University of California, it raises questions concerning how a higher education institution copes with growth while assuring, to the extent feasible, a number of desired outcomes related to student attainments, scholarship and research, and reasonable efficiency and cost among others.

California After Racial Preferences

Martin Trow
1999

This paper provides comments on William Bowen and Derek Bok's book, The Shape of the River, and the issue of racial and ethnic preferences in California higher education.

On the Challenge of Writing a University History: The University of Oslo

Edgeir Benum
1999

This paper discusses the task of writing university history. While recognizing universities as institutions with universal features, the author stresses that important insights may be gained by assessing carefully the significance of the local and national circumstances within which universities have developed. He further argues for an integrative approach - the need to illuminate the dynamics of change through studying the interplay between various spheres of activity in universities, as well as the interplay between the university and its broader social context.