20th Anniversary of ROPS

This year marks the 20th anniversary of the Center’s launch of its Research and Occasional Paper Series (ROPS). Since its founding in 1957 as the first academic research center focused on higher education in the United States, and probably the world, CSHE had published various working papers by its many associates and visiting scholars. But in 2019, the launch of ROPS by founding editor John Aubrey Douglass initiated a systematic publication series in an on-line, open access format, dedicated to publishing papers that relate to the Center’s mission: to promote multidisciplinary research. Earlier this year, Douglass handed off editorship to CSHE Research Associate Karin Fischer.

Since 1999, more than 250 ROPS have been published that range from thoughtful essays by practitioners and observers of higher education policy and politics, to rigorous academic studies that reflect the diversity of CSHE’s many research associates over the years – authors who bring their methodologies in sociology, history, political science, economics, engineering and many other academic disciplines.

ROPS has also proved a highly successful vehicle for distributing the work of the Center’s many researchers and associates’ overtime with an average of more than 100,000 individual downloads of papers a year that are listed on CSHE ROPS website, UC’s eScholarship website, and ERIC (the US Department of Education websource). Contributors have ranged from practitioners such as university presidents, to world renowned researchers and CSHE visiting scholars, to graduate students.

Many papers have had a significant impact on policy discussions; many have later been published in academic journals or as exploratory chapters that have led to books. One of the founding principles of the ROPS series is that authors retain copyright, that they use the citation formats of their discipline, and that there are no significant limits on the length of their contribution – although with advice provided by the editor and selected reviewers.

The following provides a incomplete selection of ROPS contributions over the years some by topic and including noted authors and others that made important scholarly and policy relevant contributions. For a complete list of ROPS contributions by year see the CSHE ROPS website. To search ROPS by title/author/subject, visit the Publications landing page, select "ROPS and Occasional Paper Series" under the "Publication Type" drop down menu.

Browse ROPS by Topic

Click on the drop down menus below to view ROPS published by topic.

Access and Equity

How California Determined Admissions Pools: Lower and Upper Division Student Targets and the California Master Plan for Higher Education, by John Aubrey Douglass

John Aubrey Douglass
2001

The 1960 California Master Plan for Higher Education made a number of recommendations in the area of admissions. Key was a proposed target of at least 60% of all undergraduate students being at the upper division level at the University of California and what became the California State University system. At the time, approximately 51 percent of the instruction at both UC and the State Colleges (CSU) were at the upper division. It was assumed that there was a high correlation between upper division instruction and the status of undergraduates as Juniors and Seniors.

Inequality, Student Achievement, and College Admissions: A Remedy for Underrepresentation, by Roger E. Studley

Roger E. Studley
2003

Large socioeconomic and ethnic disparities exist in college admissions. This paper demonstrates that by systematically accounting for the effect of socioeconomic circumstance on pre-college achievement, colleges can substantially reduce these disparities. A conceptual model distinguishes students' realized achievement from their underlying ability (inclusive of effort and motivation) and relates achievement differences to both ability and socioeconomic circumstance.

The Community Colleges and the Path to the Baccalaureate, by Arthur M. Cohen

Arthur M. Cohen
2003

This paper discusses several aspects of the community college role in providing access to further studies: ways of calculating transfer rates and estimates of the number of students making the transition, incentives for and inhibitors to student transfer as reflected in state policy and institutional practice, and a look to the future of transfer. It emphasizes California, which boasts by far the greatest community college and public university enrollment figures.

The Role of Advanced Placement and Honors Courses in College Admissions, by Saul Geiser and Veronica Santelices

Saul Geiser
Veronica Santelices
2004

This study examines the role of Advanced Placement (AP) and other honors-level courses as a criterion for admission at a leading public university, the University of California, and finds that the number of AP and honors courses taken in high school bears little or no relationship to students’ later performance in college. AP is increasingly emphasized as a factor in admissions, particularly at selective colleges and universities.

Straight Talk on Student Loans, by Robert Shireman

Robert Shireman
2004

The federal government provides student loans for college and graduate school in two ways: by guaranteeing bank loans, and by lending directly to students. In the guaranteed loan program, banks lend students money and profit from the interest payments while the government guarantees the loans against default and makes subsidy payments to the banks. In the direct loan system, the government provides low-interest loans directly to students, using borrower interest payments to help cover the costs of the program.

Validity Of High-School Grades In Predicting Student Success Beyond The Freshman Year: High-School Record vs. Standardized Tests as Indicators of Four-Year College Outcomes, by Saul Geiser and Maria Veronica Santelices

No College Student Left Behind? by Steven Brint

Steven Brint
2008

Today we face a challenge to the organization of higher education that will transform the enterprise, however it is resolved. That challenge goes under the name “learning outcomes,” or sometimes “accountability.” It is a challenge brought largely by those outside higher education, and it is based on criticisms of the performance of college and university instructors in the face of heightened public expectations.

The "Turning Point" for Minority Pre-Meds: The Effect of Early Undergraduate Experience in the Sciences on Aspirations to Enter Medical School of Minority Students at UC Berkeley and Stanford University, by Donald A. Barr and John Matsui

Donald A. Barr
John Matsui
2008

The University of California faces the challenge of increasing the diversity of students graduating from its medical schools while also adhering to mandated restrictions on the use of race or ethnicity in the admissions process. Students from diverse backgrounds who gain admission as undergraduates to UC Berkeley and express an early interest in a medical career are an important potential source of medical students for the UC system. However previous data suggest that many of these undergraduate students lose interest in a medical career and never apply to medical school.

Reflections on a Century of College Admissions Tests, by Richard C. Atkinson and Saul Geiser

Richard C. Atkinson
Saul Geiser
2009

Standardized testing for college admissions has grown exponentially since the first administration of the old “College Boards” in 1901. This paper surveys major developments since then: the introduction of the “Scholastic Aptitude Test” in 1926, designed to tap students’ general analytic ability; E.F.

Affording the Dream: Student Debt and State Need-Based Grant Aid for Public University Students by C. Eaton, S. Kulkarni, R. Birgeneau, H. Brady, and M. Hout

C. Eaton
S. Kulkarni
Robert Birgeneau
Henry Brady
Michael Hout
2017

Public research universities are a key vehicle for educational mobility. Yet rising student debt for undergraduate students has created new risks, particularly for lower income students at lower ranked universities. We find that student loan default rates reached 35 percent for low-income students at public universities with low research rankings during the Great Recession. Given these troubling loan default rates, we find encouraging evidence that a few U.S. states have adopted robust need-based grant aid programs to make college more affordable for low-income students.

College Affordability and the Emergence of Progressive Tuition Models: Are New Financial Aid Policies at Major Public Universities Working? by Patrick A. Lapid and John Aubrey Douglass

Patrick A. Lapid
John Aubrey Douglass
2016

In an era of significant disinvestment in public higher education by state governments, many public universities are moving toward a “progressive tuition model” that attempts to invest approximately one-third of tuition income into institutional financial aid for lower-income and middle-class students. The objective is to mitigate the cost of tuition and keep college affordable. But is this model as currently formulated working? What levels of financial stress are students of all income groups experiencing? And are they changing their behaviors?

The Growing Correlation Between Race and SAT Scores: New Findings from California by Saul Geiser

Saul Geiser
2015

This paper presents new and surprising findings on the relationship between race and SAT scores. The findings are based on the population of California residents who applied for admission to the University of California from 1994 through 2011, a sample of over 1.1 million students. The UC data show that socioeconomic background factors – family income, parental education, and race/ethnicity – account for a large and growing share of the variance in students’ SAT scores over the past twenty years.

Back to the Future: Freshman Admissions at the University of California, 1994 to the Present and Beyond, by Saul Geiser

Saul Geiser
2014

The past five years have seen unprecedented changes in freshman admissions at the University of California, reflecting steep cuts in state funding that UC sustained during that period as well as changes in UC’s definition of who is eligible to enter the university.  The number of California applicants who were not admitted to the UC system more than doubled between 2010 and 2012, although part of that increase also reflected a change in admissions policies and procedures.  The number of “no shows” – applicants who were admitted but did not attend – increased shar

International Berkeley: Enrolling International Students Yesterday and Today, Debates on the Benefits of Multicultural Diversity, and Macro Questions on Access and Equity by John Aubrey Douglass

John Aubrey Douglass
2014

The argument that cultural and other forms of diversity enhance the educational experience of all students is generally associated largely with post-1960 efforts to expand the presence of disadvantaged groups on the campuses of America’s universities and colleges. Yet, in the case of UC Berkeley, debates on the merits of cultural diversity have much earlier roots in the historical enrollment of international students. Debates in the late 1800s and early twentieth century revolved around the appropriateness of enrolling foreign students, particularly those from Asia.

Affirmative Action, the Fisher Case, and the Supreme Court: What the Justices and the Public Need to Know, by John Aubrey Douglass

John Aubrey Douglass
2013

Once again, the U.S. Supreme Court will decide on the contentious issue of Affirmative Action, and specifically the use of race in admissions decisions in public universities. Despite differences in the details, seasoned veterans of affirmative action debates are experiencing déjà vu. In this case, Abigail Noel Fisher claims overt racial discrimination when the highly selective University of Texas at Austin (UT) rejected her freshman application in 2008.

California Issues

Credential Inflation and the Professional Doctorate in California Higher Education, by Thomas J. La Belle

Thomas J. La Belle
2004

The article argues that the time has come to change California’s 1960 Master Plan for higher education by permitting the California State University (CSU) to award the doctorate in selected professional programs. The article also addresses the inadequacies of the joint doctorate as the means to remedy degree or credential creep; the CSU’s focus on securing permission to grant the Ed.D. rather than other professional doctoral degrees; and the dominant role played in the State by the CSU relative to the UC in master’s level education.

Californians Redefine Academic Freedom, by Martin Trow

Martin Trow
2005

This position paper discusses the changes to the UC Academic Senate’s regulations on academic freedom and on policies for teaching potentially contentious or political issues, arguing that the new regulation has not been adequately considered in light of its detrimental effect on academic standards.

How Best to Coordinate California Higher Education: Comments on the Governor's Proposed Reforms, by Warren H. Fox

Warren H. Fox
2005

California government is now considering major reforms in the organization of higher education, specifically dismantling the state’s independent planning and coordinating agency, the California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC), and placing it and the Student Aid Commission under a new position in the governor’s office, possibly a Secretary of Higher Education.

From Chaos to Order and Back? A Revisionist Reflection on the California Master Plan for Higher Education@50 and Thoughts About its Future, by John Aubrey Douglass

John Aubrey Douglass
2010

In 1960, California developed a "master plan" for its already famed public higher education system. It was and continues to be arguably the single most influential effort to plan the future of a system of higher education in the annals of American higher education. Despite popular belief, however, the California Master Plan for Higher Education is more important for what it preserved than what it created. There is much confusion regarding exactly how the Master Plan came about, what it said and did not say, and what portions of it are still relevant today.

Re-Imagining California Higher Education, by John Aubrey Douglass

Policy Options for University of California Budgeting, by Charles E. Young

Charles E. Young
2011

Within a quarter century after the end of World War II (1945-1970), largely because of the support and investment it received from the State, the University of California had changed from two modest-size general campuses (Berkeley and Los Angeles) and the medical campus in San Francisco (UCSF), to a system of eight general campuses. California was at the pinnacle of its success-its economy strong and growing.

A Global Talent Magnet: How a San Francisco/Bay Area Higher Education Hub Could Advance California’s Comparative Advantage In Attracting International Talent and Further Build US Economic Competitiveness, by John Aubrey Douglass

John Aubrey Douglass
Richard Edelstein
Cécile Hoareau
2011

During the 2009-10 academic year international students generated more than $18.8 billion in net income into the US economy. California alone had nearly 100,000 international students with an economic impact of nearly $3.0 billion. In this paper, we outline a strategy for the San Francisco/Bay Area to double the number of international students enrolled in local colleges and universities in ten years or less, generating a total direct economic impact of an additional $1 billion a year into the regional economy. The US retains a huge market advantage for attracting foreign students.

Exploring Funding Options for the University of California by John Aubrey Douglass

John Aubrey Douglass
2018
Despite massive cuts in state funding over the past thirty years, the University of California has managed to keep enrollment on pace with growth in population.  With California’s population projected to grow 22.5 percent (from 40 to 49 million by 2040), that will no longer be the case, unless UC is able to find a new funding model.

The Effect of Selective Public Research University Enrollment: Evidence from California, by Zachary Bleemer

Zachary Bleemer
2018
What are the benefits and costs of attending a selective public research university instead of a less-selective university or college?
This study examines the 2001-2011 Eligibility in the Local Context (ELC) program, which guaranteed University of California
admission to students in the top four percent of California high school classes. Employing a regression discontinuity design, I
estimate that ELC pulled 8 percent of marginally-admitted students into four "Absorbing'' UC campuses from less-competitive

The One University Idea and its Futures by Patricia A. Pelfrey

Patricia A. Pelfrey
2016

The University of California, the nation’s first multicampus system, is unique in its central organizing principle, known as the one-university idea.  Its premise is simple: that a large and decentralized system of campuses, which share the same mission but differ in size, interests, aspirations, and stage of development, can nevertheless be governed as a single university.  Long regarded as a major structural reason for the UC system’s rise to pre-eminence among public research universities, the one-university model has been a unifying administrative and cultural ethos within UC for

A Proposal to Eliminate the SAT in Berkeley Admissions, by Saul Geiser

Saul Geiser
2016

The SAT is used for two purposes at the University of California. First is eligibility: Determining whether applicants meet the minimum requirements for admission to the UC system. Second is admissions selection: At high-demand campuses such as Berkeley, with many more eligible applicants than places available, test scores are used to select from among them.

Small Liberal Arts Colleges and Enrollment Capacity at Public Universities: Imagining a Consortium Approach by Carol T. Christ

Carol Christ
2016

Many small private liberal arts colleges struggle to make their enrollment targets, while many public universities cannot meet enrollment demand.  Thinking creatively about collaboration between these kinds of institutions might increase the capacity of our higher education system.  This essay explores models by which we might do so.

Berkeley's New Approach to Global Engagement: Early and Current Efforts to Become More International, by Nicholas B. Dirks and Nils Gilman

Nicholas B. Dirks
Nils Gilman
2015

This essay discusses past and current thinking about the globalization of higher education (from a U.S. point of view in particular) and a new model we are attempting to develop at the University of California, Berkeley. This essay begins with a brief narrative of the historical evolution of efforts to internationalize education, from the seventeenth century to the present day, before providing a schematic outline of efforts to create new models for the global university. From its earliest beginnings in the U.S. and elsewhere, higher education embodied important global dimensions.

UC Berkeley's Adaptations to the Crisis of Public Higher Education in the US: Privatization? Commercialization? Or Hybridization? by George W. Breslauer

George W. Breslauer
2013

The University of California at Berkeley now delivers more to the public of California than it ever has, and it does this on the basis of proportionally less funding by the State government than it has ever received.  This claim may come as a surprise, since it is often said that Berkeley is in the process of privatizing, becoming less of a public university and more in the service of private interests.  To the contrary, as the State’s commitment to higher education and social-welfare programs has declined, UC Berkeley has struggled to preserve and even expand its public role, while s

The Management of Intercollegiate Athletics at UC Berkeley: Turning Points and Consequences, by John Cummins and Kirsten Hextrum

John Cummins
Kirsten Hextrum
2013

This white paper is based on a larger project being conducted with the Regional Oral History Office at the Bancroft Library.  The purpose of the research is to explore the history of the management of Intercollegiate Athletics at UC Berkeley from the 1960s to the present.  The project began in 2009 and will include, when completed, approximately 70 oral history interviews of individuals who played key roles in the management of intercollegiate athletics over that period of time – Chancellors, Athletic Directors, senior administrators, Faculty Athletic Representatives, other key facult

Doing Much More with Less: Implementing Operational Excellence at UC Berkeley by Andrew J. Szeri, Richard Lyons, Peggy Huston, and John Wilton

Andrew J. Szeri
Richard Lyons
Peggy Huston
John Wilton
2013

Universities are undergoing historic change, from the sharp downward shift in government funding to widespread demands to document performance. At the University of California Berkeley, this led to an operational change effort unlike any the university had ever attempted, dubbed Operational Excellence. The authors describe their experiences designing and leading this change effort, with emphasis on practical advice for similar efforts at other universities.

California's Fiscal Returns on Investments in Higher Education by Jon Stiles, Michael Hout, and Henry Brady

Jon Stiles
Michael Hout
Henry Brady
2012

The ongoing budget crisis in California raises many questions about the most effective ways to allocate resources in ways which sustain future investments. In this paper, we consider two questions: What are the benefits to the state for investing in higher education? And, how do current educational investments create an environment which supports future needs?

Revisiting California Higher Education Coordination, by David E. Leveille

David E. Leveille
2012

Accountability in postsecondary education across the nation has matured for the most part over the past five years. The same cannot be said for California. In California, the limited attention to accountability is inconsistent to the heightened focus on accountability at the national level.

E-Learning

Higher Education in the Digital Age: A U.S. Perspective on Why Accurate Predictions May Be Difficult

Diane Harley
2001

This paper analyzes some of the ways in which Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are being employed as possible solutions to the triad of pressures facing US research universities: (a) holding down costs, (b) providing access to an increasingly diverse demographic, and (c) maintaining quality. It presents the preliminary results of a large research project investigating the economic and pedagogical impacts of technology enhancements in a large lecture course at the University of California, Berkeley.

The Role of US Higher Education in the Global E-Learning Market

Marijk Van der Wende
2002

This paper analyzes system and institutional level responses to the growing demand for e-learning in the US in comparison with a number of other countries and regions. It reviews the external forces and factors that are driving institutions to introduce and use ICT in this area and investigates in particular the role of globalisation and increasing competition. The responses of institutions to the changing (global) environment are discussed with respect to e-learning models and international strategies.

University-Industry Relations in the Market for Online Courses and Degrees

Steven Brint
Katrina Paxton-Jorgenson
Eric Vega
2003

The market for online courses and degrees has continued to grow in recent years in spite of an overall slowdown in the growth of Internet-related industries. Who will control the new market for online courses and degrees - universities or corporations, or will a division of labor emerge between the two? What are the advantages of universities and corporations in this new market, and what are their liabilities?

Strategies for E-Learning in Universities

Open Learning: What Do Open Textbooks Tell Us About the Revolution in Education?

Gary M. Matkin
2009

This paper provides a summary and assessment of the current development of open textbooks and describes a possible direction for future development and funded support of open textbook projects. This paper provides answers to the following questions: Why do we need open textbooks? What are open textbooks (in their various forms)? How are open textbooks developed and distributed? And finally, when will open textbooks be produced? As these questions are addressed, other dimensions relevant to the Open Education Resource (OER) movement are also revealed and discussed.

Alternative Digital Credentials: An Imperative for Higher Education by Gary W. Matkin

Gary W. Matkin
2018

Alternative Digital Credentials (ADCs) will significantly transform the relationship between higher education institutions and society. By providing fully digital, workplace-relevant, and information-rich records of an individual’s skills and competencies, ADCs will render traditional university transcripts increasingly irrelevant and obsolete. Universities and colleges that to not adopt in some measure the ADC movement will begin to experience a slow decline in market position and patron support.

Global Trends and Issues/Comparative Studies

All Globalization Is Local: Countervailing Forces and the Influence on Higher Education Markets

John Aubrey Douglass
2005

Globalization trends and innovations in the instructional technologies are widely believed to be creating new markets and forcing a revolution in higher education. Much of the rhetoric of "globalists" has presented a simplistic analysis of a paradigm shift in higher education markets and the way nations and institutions deliver educational services. This essay provides an analytical framework for understanding global influences on national higher education systems.

The Global Competition for Talent: The Rapidly Changing Market for International Students and the Need for a Strategic Approach in the US, by John Aubrey Douglass and Richard Edelstein

John Aubrey Douglass
Richard Edelstein
2009

There is growing evidence that students throughout the world no longer see the US as the primary place to study; that in some form this correlates with a rise in perceived quality and prestige in the EU and elsewhere; and further, that this may mean a continued decline in the US’s market share of international students. There clearly are a complex set of variables that will influence international education and global labor markets, including the current global economic recession.

Higher Education Budgets and the Global Recession: Tracking Varied National Responses and their Consequences, by John Aubrey Douglass

A Third Wave of International Student Mobility: Global Competitiveness and American Higher Education, by Rahul Choudaha

Quality and the new Flagship University Ideal in Asian Higher Education, by David P. Ericson

David P. Ericson
2017

A singular vision has propelled higher education and ministries of education in Asia since the new millennium. It is a vision launched
by the once rising tide of a globalized world order that spilled into higher education: in order to be competitive on the world scene,
each Asian country had to build “World Class Universities,” which could be compared and rank-ordered with the pre-eminent
research universities of America, Britain and elsewhere. And if the pre-eminent American and British research universities could

Knowledge Based Economic Areas and Flagship Universities: A Look at the New Growth Ecosystems in the US and California by John Aubrey Douglass

John Aubrey Douglass
2016

The acceptance of new growth theory relates, in part, to a number of highly touted regional success stories – or what I term “Knowledge Based Economic Areas” (KBEAs) in this and past essays. The United States, and California in particular, is viewed as perhaps the most robust creators of KBEAs, providing an influential model that is visited and revisited by business and government leaders, and other Flagship (or leading national) universities, that wish to replicate their strengths within their own cultural and political terms.

How Global Competition is Changing Universities: Three Theoretical Perspectives by Igor Chirikov

Igor Chirikov
2016

This essay provides an outline of three theoretical perspectives to study the impact of global competition on organizational change at universities. The perspective of neoliberal economics portrays global competition as competition of universities in the global higher education market. Universities transform towards greater efficiency with the goal of having a larger market share. The political economy perspective suggests that global competition in higher education is an emergent property of competitive relations among nation states.

Profiling the Flagship University Model: An Exploratory Proposal for Changing the Paradigm From Ranking to Relevancy, by John Aubrey Douglass

John Aubrey Douglass
2014

It’s a familiar if not fully explained paradigm. A “World Class University” (WCU) is supposed to have highly ranked research output, a culture of excellence, great facilities, and a brand name that transcends national borders. But perhaps most importantly, the particular institution needs to sit in the upper echelons of one or more world rankings generated each year by non-profit and for-profit entities. That is the ultimate proof for many government ministers and for much of the global higher education community.

Macro-Environmental Mapping of International Branch Campus Activities of Universities Worldwide by Anna Kosmützky and Georg Krücken

Anna Kosmützky
Georg Krücken
2014

The paper provides an initial international comparative empirical assessment of international branch campuses (IBCs) worldwide. Building on neo-institutional theory and organizational ecology, it sheds light on the new organizational form by analyzing their founding age of the home university and IBC mortality.

Comprehending the International Initiatives of Universities: A Taxonomy of Modes of Engagement and Institutional Logics, by Richard J. Edelstein and John Aubrey Douglass

Richard J. Edelstein
John Aubrey Douglass
2012

The paper examines the behavior of universities at the level of the individual institution to create a taxonomy of actions and logics used to initiate international activities, engagements, and academic programs. The taxonomy is organized utilizing the concepts of activity clusters, modes of engagement, and institutional logics. Its purpose is to provide a framework for future research as well as a tool for scholars and practitioners to better analyze and understand what has become a rush by many universities to become more engaged globally.

Trends Towards Global Excellence in Undergraduate Education: Taking the Liberal Arts Experience into the 21st Century, by Marijk van der Wende

Marijk van der Wende
2012

Dissatisfaction over undergraduate education seems to be persistent and has been jeopardized by the boost in research performance as fuelled by global rankings. Yet it will continue to be the cornerstone and a key mission of higher education. Hence the tide is shifting and the global debate on “the world-class university” is increasingly inclusive towards excellence in teaching and learning. A renewed focus on liberal arts education is part of this global debate on redefining excellence.

Governance, Management and Budget

What's for Sale These Days in Higher Education: Two Stories, by Robert M. Rosenzweig

Robert M. Rosenzweig
1999

"What's for sale and what isn't?" The author has no doubt that we will see more corporate involvement in teaching and research. Universities will increasingly sell or rent to corporations those activities to which a dollar value can be attached that is agreeable to both sides. The financial pressures on universities and the value of what they do, as perceived by widening sectors of business, make that close to inevitable. The author, however, is dubious that many universities can be trusted to know the difference between what is marginal and what is central.

Politics, Markets, and University Costs: Financing Universities in the Current Era, by Roger L. Geiger

The Corporation of Learning: Nonprofit Higher Education Takes Lessons from Business, by David L. Kirp

David L. Kirp
2019

This essay examines the ways in which nonprofit universities increasingly emulate businesses, focusing on two of the most direct forms of emulation: the creation of internal university markets at the University of Southern California through adoption of variants of resource center management (RCM) and the privatization of public higher education at the University of Virginia.

The Dynamics of Variable Fees: Exploring Institutional and Public Policy Responses, by David Ward and John Aubrey Douglass

David Ward
John Aubrey Douglass
2005

Variable fees at the graduate and undergraduate levels are a topic of discussion in the US and in the EU as part of a larger movement towards increasing the role of fees in the funding of public universities. This essay describes this relatively new shift and its causes, outlines various funding models related to fee levels, and discusses the possible policy implications of variable fee structures.

Federal, State, and Local Governments: University Patrons, Partners, or Protagonists? by Charles M. Vest

Markets in Higher Education: Can We Still Learn from Economics' Founding Fathers? by Pedro Nuno Teixeira

Pedro Nuno Teixeira
2006

Markets or market-like mechanisms are playing an increasing role in higher education, with visible consequences both for the regulation of higher education systems as a whole, as well as for the governance mechanisms of individual institutions. This article traces the history of economists’ views on the role of education, from Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, Alfred Marshall, and Milton Friedman, to present-day debates about the relevance of market economies to higher education policy.

The Crisis of the Publics: An International Comparative Discussion on Higher Education Reforms and Possible Implications for US Public Universities, by C. Judson King, John Aubrey Douglass, and Irwin Feller

Hedgehogs, Foxes, Leadership Renewal and Succession Planning, by Cristina Gonzalez

Cristina Gonzalez
2007

This article examines the intellectual history of The Uses of the University, including the influence of José Ortega y Gasset’s ideas about higher education, with a view to exploring Clark Kerr’s vision for the university and how that vision might be expanded to take account of present challenges, in particular, diversity. The paper, which calls for leadership renewal and succession planning, pays special attention to the two types of administrators defined by Kerr--the visionary hedgehog and the shrewd fox.

Executive Compensation at the University of California: An Alternative View, by Patricia A. Pelfrey

Patricia A. Pelfrey
2008

The 2005-6 executive compensation controversy at the University of California has been explained as the result of a massive breach of compliance with the University’s compensation policies by the Office of the President (UCOP). For more than a decade, the explanation goes, UCOP failed to comply with its own compensation policies, embodied in the 1992-93 Principles for Review of Executive Compensation, and engaged in a longstanding pattern of secrecy and policy violations. This paper argues that both assertions are wrong.

Leadership, Diversity and Succession Planning in Academia, by Cristina Gonzalez

Cristina Gonzalez
2010

Although academia is becoming more like business in many respects - not all of them positive - it has not borrowed one of the best attributes of business culture: its tradition of developing leadership through succession planning. As a result, much talent is underutilized. This includes, most prominently, that of women and minorities, who tend not to be perceived as leadership material.

The Multidisciplinary Imperative in Higher Education, by C. Judson King

American Universities in Trumpland​ ​-​ ​Financial​ ​Ruin​ ​Averted? by John​ ​Aubrey​ ​Douglass

John Aubrey Douglass
2017

The Trump administration has no significant plan or strategy related to higher education. The only major policy declarations -- to eliminate federal regulations on for-profit colleges and revisit federal guidelines on sexual assault on college campuses – both unravel policies developed under the Obama administration. Where the fate of higher education lies is in the innumerable initiatives bent on pleasing Trump’s base and in the search for some sort of major legislative victory.

A Cautionary Analysis of a Billion Dollar Athletic Expenditure by John Cummins

John Cummins
2017

This paper is a description and analysis of the history of the renovation of Memorial Stadium and the building of the Barclay Simpson Student Athlete High Performance Center (SAHPC) on the Berkeley campus, showing how incremental changes over time result in a much riskier and financially less viable project than originally anticipated.  It describes the decision making process, the role of various constituent groups including senior administrators and the UC Regents, faculty, community members and local and state governmental officials, donors and protesters.  It includes the legal ch

Restructuring Public Higher Education Governance to Succeed in a Highly Competitive Environment by James A. Hyatt

James A. Hyatt
2015

Given diminished governmental support, competition from private counterparts, and public demands for access to services, public universities need to respond in an effective manner to take advantage of opportunities and meet the challenges of today’s highly competitive environment. A critical factor in meeting these challenges is the manner in which these institutions are governed.

On the Apportionment of Administrative Governance Functions Within Multi-Campus Universities and University Systems, by C. Judson King

C. Judson King
2013

Most public universities in the United States are formed into systems, containing more than one university or campus.  There are clear rationales for these systems, including overall planning and coordination, budgeting efficiency, and effectiveness of dealings with the state government.  The distribution of internal governance functions between the system level and the individual-campus level has, however, been a source of continual tension for understandable reasons.  Although there can be no hard and fast rules for the division of administrative functions between the system-wide le

Let's Not Railroad American Higher Education! By Henry Brady

Henry Brady
2013

Politics, economics, and technology have conspired to make this an exceptionally challenging time for American higher education. Some critics claim that costs are out of control in traditional public and private nonprofit higher education. They believe these institutions will soon go the way of the railroads as for-profit institutions displace them and the Internet replaces college campuses and classrooms. Other critics bemoan the privatization of higher education and the increasing role of market forces.

Yes, but can they earn a living? Methods for creating an effective system of Measuring Labor Market Outcomes in Higher Education, by Richard W. Moore, Kenneth Chapman, Bettina Huber, and Mark Shors

Richard W. Moore
Kenneth Chapman
Bettina Huber
Mark Shors
2013

A new federal initiative calls for a College Scorecard which will include a yet to be determined measure of graduate earnings. In this paper we examine the political context that drives this initiative and examine the nascent efforts of four states to develop statewide systems to measure the labor market outcomes of higher education. We propose five principles to support a system that would generate valid labor market measures that could cut across all segments of higher education in California, and disaggregate down to campuses, departments and programs.

Board Governance of Public University Systems: Stresses and Needs, by C. Judson King

C. Judson King
2012

Modes of board-level governance for public universities and especially public university systems should be re-examined in view of growing major forces that create both challenges and opportunities that are enormous for public higher education. To sustain the public mission and rise to the challenges and opportunities, there is a growing need to enhance funding from a variety of different sources, many of them private, and to map them onto new initiatives, partnerships, and directions of change.

Tales of University Devolution: Organizational Behavior in the Age of Markets, by John Aubrey Douglass

John Aubrey Douglass
2012

n the wake of the Cold War era, America’s research universities became increasingly characterized by a tribal mentality among schools and departments, and disciplines. The surge in research funding, and the tremendous growth rate among the major public universities in particular, fostered the idea of the “multiversity” was becoming less communal, and less aware of the collective purpose.

On the Brink: Assessing the Status of the American Faculty, by Jack H. Schuster and Martin J. Finkelstein

Jack H. Schuster
Martin J. Finkelstein
2007
This paper focuses on the present condition and future of the professoriate and is part of a long-term study on how the academic profession is changing, now more rapidly than at any time in memory. These dramatic shifts have led to a deep restructuring of academic appointments, work, and careers. The question now looming is whether the forces that have triggered academic restructuring will, in time, so transform the academic profession that its role—its unique contribution—is becoming ever more vulnerable to dangerous compromise. Whether the academic profession is able to negotiate successfully its role in the new era—to preserve core values and to ensure the indispensable contributions of the academy to society—remains to be seen.

Graduate Education

Developing Graduate Students of Color for the Professoriate in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), by Anne J. MacLachlan

Anne J. MacLachlan
2006

This paper presents part of the results of a completed study entitled A Longitudinal Study of Minority Ph.D.s from 1980-1990: Progress and Outcomes in Science and Engineering at the University of California during Graduate School and Professional Life. It focuses particularly on the graduate school experience and degree of preparation for the professoriate of African American doctoral students in the sciences and engineering, and presents the results of a survey of 33 African American STEM Ph.D.s from the University of California earned between 1980-1990.

Reforming Doctoral Education: There is a Better Way, by Rachel Spronken-Smith

Maresi Nerad

SERU Senior Researcher, Professor Emerita, Higher Education, University of Washington, Seattle

Maresi Nerad is the founding director of the Center for Innovation and Research in Graduate Education (CIRGE) and a full Professor (tenured) for Higher Education, in the Leadership in Higher Education Program, College of Education, at the University of Washington, Seattle.  A native of Germany, Dr. Nerad received her doctorate from the University of California, Berkeley; directed research in the central Graduate Division of UC Berkeley, served as Dean in Residence at the Council of Graduate Schools, D.C., and as Associate Dean of the UW central Graduate School.

Preservation of Educational Inequality in Doctoral Education: Tacit Knowledge, Implicit Bias and University Faculty, by Anne J. MacLachlan

Anne MacLachlan
2017

Making doctoral education accessible and successful for students from low income, first generation families as well as members of immigrant or specific ethnic groups is a world- wide problem. In the US the traditional explanation for the low numbers of Ph.D. recipients from these groups are lack of preparation, lack of interest and a “leaky pipeline.” These alone are not enough to explain disparities. This article argues that the most powerful vehicles of exclusion are tacit knowledge and the implicit bias of faculty and is related to doctoral/faculty socialization.

Higher Education History

Biology at Berkeley, by Martin A. Trow

Martin A. Trow
1999

This paper is concerned with the reorganization of biology at Berkeley, begun in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and now well along. Key to the initiation of change was the appointment of a Chancellor and Vice-chancellor who were committed to the changes, and the enlistment of outstanding biologists already at Berkeley to design the reform and carry it through.

The Cold War, Technology and the American University, by John Aubrey Douglass

John Aubrey Douglass
1999

The translation of Sputnik from a scientific into a political event changed the dynamics of federal science and technology policy, and elevated to new heights the American research university as a pivotal tool for winning the Cold War. This paper discusses this significant shift in federal policy, its impact on America's research universities and scientific community, and its influence on the contemporary economy. Sputnik prompted a significant expansion in the training of scientists and engineers, and acted as a catalyst for large-scale federal funding for higher education.

In Praise of Weakness: Chartering, the University of the United States, and Dartmouth College, by Martin Trow

Martin Trow
2003

This paper explores the proposition that if American higher education has been broadly successful in serving its society, it is in large part because American colleges and universities, and the system of which they are part, were created under conditions of weakness, both academic and financial.

One University: The Evolution of an Idea, by Patricia A. Pelfrey

Patricia A. Pelfrey
2011

The one-university idea—that the University of California is a single institution whose campuses are united in the pursuit of a common mission and common standards of quality—has been a guiding organizational principle since UC President Robert Gordon Sproul first articulated it in the 1930s. This paper examines the origins of the one-university idea in the Sproul era, the role it has played in UC’s institutional development through waves of decentralization and campus expansion, and whether it remains relevant today.

History's Coils: The UC Nuclear Weapons Laboratories by Patricia A. Pelfrey

Patricia A. Pelfrey
2018

Early in the Second World War, Franklin Roosevelt appealed to the nation’s elite universities to join in the quest for powerful new technological weapons to counter the Nazi threat.  Urged on by Nobelist Ernest O.

California's Affirmative Action Fight: Power Politics and the University of California by John Aubrey Douglass

John Aubrey Douglass
2018

This essay discusses the contentious events leading to the decision by the University of California’s Board of Regents to end affirmative action in admissions, hiring and contracting at the university in July 1995. This controversial decision provided momentum for California’s passage of Proposition 209 the following year ending “racial preferences” for all of the state’s public agencies. In virtually any other state, the debate over university admissions would have bled beyond the confines of a university’s governing board.

The Rise of the Publics: American Democracy, the Public University Ideal, and the University of California by John Aubrey Douglass

John Aubrey Douglass
2018

In the post-Revolutionary War era, private institutions dominated America’s emerging higher education landscape, all tied to sectarian communities and often with limited forms of public financing. The United States could have sustained that dominance, essentially differing to the private sector in expanding access, and delaying the “rise of the publics.” This did not happen. A major turning point came in the mid-1800s. Private colleges seemed incapable or simply not interested in serving the broader needs of American society.

A University in the Wilderness: Building a Community and Culture at the New University of California by Karen Merritt

Thoughts on the History of University Systems in the U.S., by Robert Berdahl

Robert Berdahl
2014

Beginning in earnest in the 1950s, most state governments began a process of creating public university systems with a governing board and intended to coordinate and manage usually a range of institutional types and including a major public flagship university. By the late 1980s, enthusiasm for more centralized structures and state-wide “superboards” began to wane, in part because of the opposition of flagship campuses fearful of the “leveling” result they had seen in Wisconsin.

International Case Studies

A Social Contract Between the Public Higher Education Sector and the People of South Africa, by Ahmed C. Bawa

Ahmed C. Bawa
2000

The higher education sector in South Africa is experiencing an existential crisis. For all of its diverse elements and activities and values as a system, its historic mission and the role that it plays in society were defined for it in the previous era - this not withstanding the progressive roles played by some of the . However, it is an existential crisis which stems only partially from its history in our Apartheid past.

Current Transformations in Norwegian Higher Education, by Kim Gunnar Helsvig

Kim Gunnar Helsvig
2002

This article revises Norwegian higher education debate from the publication of a radical reform proposal made by a government committee in May 2000 until the closure of the reform process in the parliament in May 2001. It is argued that a great rhetorical divide between neo-liberal and Humboldtian concepts of higher education characterized the debate, and that this to some extent distorted the coherence of the final solutions. Nevertheless, it is maintained that the reform is quite likely to instigate a period of profound changes in the national higher education system.

Affirmative Action in Higher Education in India and the US: A Study in Contrasts, by Asha Gupta

Asha Gupta
2006

The 21st century has brought new challenges and opportunities for higher education. In the wake of the transition from elitist to mass education, universities worldwide are under pressure to enhance access and equity, on the one hand, and to maintain high standards of quality and excellence, on the other. Today the notion of equity not only implies greater access to higher education, but also opportunities for progress. In recent debates on higher education, the notions of equity and access go beyond minority to diversity.

European Responses to Global Competitiveness in Higher Education, by Marijk Van der Wende

Marijk Van der Wende
2009

The growing global competition in which knowledge is a prime factor for economic growth is increasingly shaping policies and setting the agenda for the future of European higher education. With its aim to become the world’s leading knowledge economy, the European Union is concerned about its performance in the knowledge sector, in particular in the nexus of research, higher education institutions, and innovation.

What Future for UK Higher Education? by Roger Brown

Roger Brown
2010

Historically, the UK system has been one of the most successful in combining excellence with access. However the favorable conditions that British universities and colleges have enjoyed in recent years, associated in large part with the introduction of higher tuition fees in 2006, are coming to an end. British universities and colleges face a future of static or even falling local demand, increasing local and international competition, severe public and private expenditure constraints, increased regulation, and greater difficulties in aligning costs with income.

Master Planning in Brazilian Higher Education: Expanding the 3-Year Public College System in the State of São Paulo, by Renato H. L. Pedrosa

Renato H. L. Pedrosa
2010

Until recently, Higher education (HE) in Brazil had been, identified with colleges and universities running traditional academic undergraduate programs, with expected graduation time of 4 years or more. The universities in the state of São Paulo are at the top of international rankings among Brazilian HEIs, accounting for about half of all indexed research done in Brazil and responsible for 40% of all PhD degrees granted in the country. They have a total enrolment of almost 200,000 students, about 1/3 of those in graduate programs.

Financing EU Student Mobility: A Proposed Credit Union Scheme for Europe, by Cécile Hoareau

Cécile Hoareau
2010

Governments worldwide face the challenge of financing a growing student population with limited resources, especially in the current context of difficult economic recovery. Student loan schemes, because they appear as cost-efficient and are defendable on the lines of social equity (students invest in their future), are increasingly politically attractive. It was therefore only a matter of time before the European Union considered the feasibility of implementing a similar scheme. Such a lending scheme faces EU-specific limitations.

Globalization and Dual Modes of Higher Education Policymaking in France: Je t’aime moi non plus, by Cécile Hoareau

Internationalizing Brazil's Universities: Creating Coherent National Policies Must Be a Priority, by Marcelo Knobel

Marcelo Knobel
2011

It is estimated that approximately 3 million students are enrolled as international students, and it is possible to project that this number may reach more than 7 million by 2025. As global demand exceeds the supply, competition is building for the best of these students. Some countries (or regions) clearly envisage the opportunity this represents and have been strongly stimulating student mobility.

A European Perspective on New Modes of University Governance and Actorhood, by Georg Krücken

Georg Krücken
2011

Higher education systems in Europe are currently undergoing profound transformations. At the macro-level,there is an increasein the number of students enrolled, subjects of study offered, and university missions that have gained legitimacy over time. At the  second  levelchanges  are  evident  at  the  level  of  university  governance.  New  Public  Management  reforms  have  put  into question  the  traditional  mode  of  governance  that  was  based  on  the  interplay  of  strong  state  regulation  and  academic  self-governance.

Australian Universities at a Crossroads, by W. Lacy, G. Croucher, A. Brett, R. Mueller

William B. Lacy
Gwilym Croucher
André Brett
Romina Mueller
2017

This study provides an overview of the history, current status, and future challenges to the Australian university system through the eyes of its leaders. Hopefully, the report will be informative and useful and will raise critical and important issues that need to be considered and addressed for the continuing success of the system and the society it enables. The intended audience includes: university leaders, managers and staff; higher education policy makers and analysts; and, Australian and global higher education researchers and scholars.

Quantifying Faculty Productivity in Japan: Development and Application of the Achievement-Motivated Key Performance Indicator by Misako Aida and Satoshi P. Watanabe

Misako Aida
Satoshi P. Watanabe
2016

Universities throughout the world are trending toward more performance based methods to capture their strengths, weaknesses and productivity. Hiroshima University has developed an integrated objective measure for quantifying multifaceted faculty activities, namely the “Achievement-Motivated Key Performance Indicator” (A-KPI), in order to visualize the strengths and weaknesses of the university, while balancing versatile faculty activities university-wide. We believe any reform efforts should be based on accurate understanding of the status quo through rigorous self-assessment.

China: A Follower or Leader in Global Higher Education? By Marijk van der Wende and Jiabin Zhu

Marijk van der Wende
Jiabin Zhu
2016

This paper focuses on China both as an object and a subject in the globalization of higher education and the sometimes paradoxical nature of the country’s policies in this respect. How is the Chinese perspective on globalization shaping its agenda for higher education, the development of world-class universities, and cooperation with Europe and the West? What is China’s role in the globalization of higher education, its global agency in higher education, and the impact of its diaspora, soft power, and its new Silk Routes policies?

Privatization and Access: The Chilean Higher Education Experiment and its Discontents, by Cristina González and Liliana Pedraja

Cristina González
Liliana Pedraja
2015

President Barack Obama recently announced a proposal to eliminate tuition charges at community colleges so that everyone can easily complete the first two years of a university education.  At the same time, the administration is creating new regulations to curb the worst abuses of for-profit universities.  This suggests that the country has reached a turning point regarding access to higher education.  There is a practical limit to privatization, and the countries that have privatized their higher education systems most aggressively, such is the case of the United States, are now reac

International Academic Mobility: Towards a Concentration of the Minds in Europe, by Marijk van der Wende

Marijk van der Wende
2015

The global competition and related international academic mobility in science and research is rising. Within this context, Europe faces quantitative skills shortages, including an estimate of between 800,000 and one million researchers. Within Europe skills imbalances and mismatches increase, with a growing divergence between countries and regions, in particular between the North and South, in terms of their ability to invest and attract human and financial capital for R&D.

Globalization and Student Learning: A Literature Review and Call for Greater Conceptual Rigor and Cross-Institutional Studies, by Richard J. Edelstein

Richard J. Edelstein
2014

University learning objectives and the curriculum have evolved to include more knowledge, skills and aptitudes related to the increasingly international nature of a broad range of professions and occupations.  More broadly, graduates are expected to know more about the world outside their home country in order to be informed and responsible citizens and to function personally and professionally in international contexts.  There is, however, very little systematic assessment of international learning and programming. A review of the literature indicates that studi

Seeking a Roadmap to Becoming World Class: Strategic Planning at Peking University, by Xie Guangkuan

Xie Guangkuan
2013

Strategic planning plays an important but sometimes controversial role in higher education. This paper examines how strategic planning works in Chinese universities, using Peking University as a case study. This essay discusses the rationale for why Peking University (PKU) decided to pursue status as a world-class university along with objectives and value of its various strategic plans beginning in the 1990s.

England's New Market Based System of Student Education: An Initial Report, by Roger Brown

Roger Brown
2013

In 2012 the Conservative-Liberal Democrat Government introduced a number of reforms to the higher education system in England. The main change was to abolish direct state subsidies for the teaching of most subjects, and replace them with a state-subsidised tuition fee of up to $9,000 (US $13,700). A number of other changes were also made, all with the aim of increasing institutional competition and consumer choice. The Government believes the reforms are necessary to assure financial sustainability, raise quality and enhance social mobility.

A New Approach to Analyzing University Prestige and Internal Resource Allocation: Geometric Interpretations and Implications, by Yasumi Abe and Satoshi P. Watanabe

Yasumi Abe
Satoshi P. Watanabe
2012

The content of this paper is based solely on the original study reported in Abe and Watanabe (2012a) in which the authors develop a structured and innovative theory of optimal resource allocation and prestige maximization for an institution of higher education.

Scholarly Communication

The University as Publisher: Summary of a Meeting Held at UC Berkeley on November 1, 2007, by Diane Harley

Diane Harley
2008

With the advent of electronic publishing, the scholarly communication landscape at universities has become increasingly diverse. Multiple stakeholders including university presses, libraries, and central IT departments are challenged by the increasing volume and the rapidity of production of these new forms of publication in an environment of economic uncertainties.

Assessing the Future Landscape of Scholarly Communication: An Exploration of Faculty Values and Needs in Seven Disciplines by Diane Harley, Sophia Krzys Acord, Sarah Earl-Novell, Shannon Lawrence, and C. Judson King

Diane Harley
Sophia Krzys Acord
Sarah Earl-Novell
Shannon Lawrence
C. Judson King
2010

Since  2005,  the  Center  for  Studies  in  Higher  Education  (CSHE),  with  generous  funding  from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, has been conducting research to understand the needs  and  practices  of  faculty  for  in-progress  scholarly  communication  (i.e.,  forms  of  communication employed as research is being executed) as well as archival publication. The complete results of our work are available at the Future of Scholarly Communicationproject’s website.  We describe here the results of our research conducted between 2007 and 2010.

Science and Technology

Research Universities: Core of the US Science and Technology System, by Richard C. Atkinson

Richard C. Atkinson
2007

This paper traces the historical development of the American research and technology enterprise from its origins in the post-Civil War period to its current international dominance in the discovery and dissemination of scientific knowledge. U.S. research universities have become the vital center of this enterprise over the past 60 years. But competitors in Europe and Asia, many of them looking to the American research university as a model, are beginning to challenge U.S. leadership in science and technology.

The Trajectory of Chinese Doctoral Education and Scientific Research, by Wanhua Ma

Wanhua Ma
2007

Dramatic enrollment expansion at the undergraduate level and institutional diversification are characteristics frequently used to describe major trends in China's massive higher education system. A less understood phenomenon is the relatively new and rapid establishment of graduate level programs that have implications for national economic development.

Science and Its Discontents: An Evolutionary Tale, by Donald Kennedy

Donald Kennedy
2008

This paper analyzes the roots and implications of conflict between the conduct of science and government predilections in the United States, including the security state and neoconservative control of Washington. Three major conflicts are discussed: the emergence of new security and secrecy regimes that seek control of science; religiously derived moral viewpoints that seek to limit scientific research; and the purposeful shaping and censoring of scientific findings for political gain.

Universities, the US High Tech Advantage, and the Process of Globalization, by John Aubrey Douglass

John Aubrey Douglass
2008

Research universities throughout the world are part of a larger effort by nation-states to bolster science and technological innovation and compete economically. The US remains highly competitive as a source of High Tech (HT) innovation because of a number of market positions, many the result of long term investments in institutions such as research universities and in R&D funding, and more broadly influenced by a political culture that has tended to support entrepreneurs and risk taking. In essence, the US was the first mover in pursuing the nexus of science and economic policy.

Science and the Entrepreneurial University, by Richard C. Atkinson

Richard C. Atkinson
2010

The current and still-evolving role of the American research university has been shaped by four key developments in the past sixty-five years: the historic decision to establish a comprehensive postwar federal science policy, described in Vannevar Bush’s 1945 report, Science, The Endless Frontier; the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980; economic analyses from the 1950s onward that have validated the central role of knowledge in economic growth and influenced government and university policy on industry-university research; and various experiments with such research that have led to an increasing i

Can the Research Model Move Beyond its Dominant Patron? The Future of Support for Fundamental Research in US Universities, by Gwilym Croucher

Gwilym Croucher
2018

The United States has been the leader in fundamental research for the last seven decades. Fundamental research is overwhelming undertaken in or in conjunction with research-intensive universities, and since the 1950s they have depended on US Federal funding to make this possible. This support has been consistently championed by Congress, is popular across the political spectrum and enjoys long public backing, in no small part because there remains a widespread trust in the societal benefits it provides.

Undergraduate Education

What Do We Know About Students' Learning and How Do We Know It? By K. Patricia Cross

Report: Civic and Academic Engagement in the Multiversity: Institutional Trends and Initiatives at the University of California, Proceedings of University of California Symposium held June 10, 2005

Proceedings of University of California Symposium held June 10, 2005
2005

Civic engagement is moving to the forefront of higher education discussions as universities seek ways not only to intensify students’ learning experiences but also to forge stronger links with the communities they are meant to serve. Within the University of California system, there are already multiple examples of service-learning, university-community partnerships, and volunteer initiatives.

Use and Users of Digital Resources: A Focus on Undergraduate Education in the Humanities and Social Sciences, by Diane Harley, Jonathan Henke, Shannon Lawrence, Ian Miller, Irene Perciali, and David Nasatir

Diane Harley
Jonathan Henke
Shannon Lawrence
Ian Miller
Irene Perciali
David Nasatir
2006

A “build it and they will come” approach to many university digitization initiatives has precluded systematic investigations of the demand for these resources.  Those who fund and develop digital resources have identified the general lack of knowledge about the level and quality of their use in educational settings as pressing concerns.

Engineers Should Have a College Education, by C. Judson King

C. Judson King
2006

Many societal trends and needs call for engineers to broaden their outlooks, have more flexible career options, and work closely and effectively with persons of quite different backgrounds. Yet the education and general orientation of engineers have been directed inward toward the profession, rather than outward toward the rest of society and the world. Engineering education should change to create a broader outlook and understanding in graduates and thereby engender capabilities for linkages and more likelihood of advancement into management and/or movement into other areas.

Institutional Versus Academic Discipline Measures of Student Experience: A Matter of Relative Validity, by Steve Chatman

Steve Chatman
2007

The University of California’s census survey of undergraduates, UCUES, presents an opportunity to measure both disciplinary and institutional differences in students’ academic experience. Results from nearly 60,000 responses (38% response rate) from the 2006 administration found greater variance among majors within an institution than between equivalent majors across institutions. Cluster analysis techniques were employed to establish disciplinary patterns, with traditional distinctions between hard and soft sciences generally supported.

The Immigrant University: Assessing the Dynamics of Race, Major and Socioeconomic Characteristics at the University of California, by John Aubrey Douglass, Heinke Roebken, and Gregg Thomson

John Aubrey Douglass
Heinke Roebken
Gregg Thomson
2007

The University of California has long been a major source of socioeconomic mobility in California. Data from the University of California’s Undergraduate Experience Survey (UCUES) indicates that more than half the undergraduate students in the UC system have at least one parent that is an immigrant. The ratio is even higher at UC Berkeley. What do such a high percentage of students with recent immigrant backgrounds tell us about the University of California and socioeconomic mobility?

Undergraduate Time Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from UCUES 2006, by Steven G. Brint and Allison M. Cantwell

The Poor and the Rich: A Look at Economic Stratification and Academic Performance Among Undergraduate Students in the United States, by John Aubrey Douglass and Gregg Thomson

Restructuring Engineering Education: Why, How and When? By C. Judson King

C. Judson King
2011

There is strong interest in broadening engineering education, bringing in more liberal arts content as well as additional subjects such  as  economics,  business  and  law,  with  which  engineers  now  haveto  be  familiar.    There  are  also  cogent  arguments  for balancing against what is now the almost exclusively quantitative  nature of the curriculum, adding more elements that relate to the actual practice of engineering, and structuring engineering education so as to provide multiple and later entry points, which should enable more informed career choices and make engineering attra

Fostering Global Competence Through Internationalization at American Research Universities, by I. Shcheglova, G. Thomson and Martha​ ​C.​ ​Merrill

Irina Shcheglova
Gregg Thomson
Martha​ ​C.​ ​Merrill
2017

American research universities have recently joined the march for internationalization and now are putting explicit efforts into finding ways to create an international focus. Within a short number of years, missions have been transformed, incorporating elements of globalization. Universities now declare the importance of preparing students to live and work in a multicultural and global world.

Undergraduate Research Engagement at Major US Research Universities, by John Aubrey Douglass and Chun-Mei Zhao

John Aubrey Douglass
Chun-Mei Zhao
2013

Bolstered by the recommendations of the 1998 Boyer Report, US federal agencies have put significant resources into promoting opportunities for undergraduates to engage in research. American universities and colleges have been creating support programs and curricular opportunities intended to create a “culture of undergraduate research.” Yet our knowledge about the commonality of undergraduate research engagement—how it integrates into the educational experience, and its benefits or lack thereof—is still very limited.

The Goals of Transnational Education: Reflections of a True Believer, by Jeffrey S. Lehman

Jeffrey S. Lehman
2012

Transnational education can both improve the lives of the students who experience it and also increase cooperation and reduce conflict across cultural lines. The value of transnational education is more apparent when one considers how, in a radically transformed twenty-first century, students need to develop a special set of nine essential qualities: curiosity, empathy, skepticism, logical thinking, patience, creativity, scientific literacy, effectiveness across cultural boundaries and multilingualism.

Beyond the Ivy Islands: Building Undergraduate Teaching Muscle in Public Universities Without Detracting from Research, by Steven G. Brint

Steven G. Brint
2012

Reviewing Andrew Delbanco’s new book, College: What It Was, Is, and Should Be, this paper explores the current shifts in the college model—particularly those occurring at overstressed public campuses—and offers suggestions for improving teaching effectiveness in “dustbowl” classrooms to avoid the progressive mechanization of the undergraduate curriculum over the next decade and a growing exodus from public universities to online colleges-in-name-only.